This discussion deals with the interrupt on RB change feature. It assumes the reader is familiar with the general discussion dealing with interrupts.
The PIC16C84 and most other PICs provide a feature where the program may be configured such that an interrupt occurs when there is a change on any of a number of inputs. With the 16C84 (and 16C554/558), the interrupt is caused when there is a change on the upper nibble of Port B, i.e., RB.4::RB.7.
This might be used as a power saving technique. The processor is placed in the sleep mode and is activated only when the user changes the state of any on the four inputs. The processor then performs the defined task and goes back to sleep.
We are planning to use this feature in a 2000 event, 4 Channel event data logger. An event causes a change on any of the four inputs, waking the processor. The processor determines which of the four channels on which the event occurred. It will then fetch a 32-bit elapsed time in seconds from a Dallas DS1602. 32-bits accommodates an elapsed time of some 125 years, which is a bit much. Thus, only the lower 30 elapsed time bits will be used and the two bits associated with the channel will be inserted in the bit 31 and 30 positions. These four bytes will be saved to a Microchip 24LC65 (8K by 8) EEPROM.
The general format of configuring for the Wake Up on Change interrupt is the same as with the external or timer / counter overflow interrupts. When ready for this interrupt, bit RBIE in the INTCON register is set which specifically indentifies the type of interrrupt that will be entertained. The GIE bit is then set.
On interrupt, the program vectors to location 004H. Note that interrupts are now disabled. The processor then performs the defined task, the RBIF is then cleared and the processor then returns from the interrupt service routine using the RETFIE command. Note that interrupts are now enabled.
There is a subtlety associated with the wake-up on change. PORTB must be read. The processor then stores a copy of the high nibble. The RBIF is then set and interrupt occurs when the high nibble of PORTB differs from this copy. Thus, it is important that in the interrupt service routine that PORTB be read so as to update the copy.
The following incorrect code in the interrupt service routine caused us to do a good deal of head scratching.
BCF INTCON, RBIF MOVF PORTB, W
Indeed, we were clearing the interrupt flag. However, as the state of the high nibble of PORTB still differed from the old copy, the processor immediately set the RBIF flag and on RETFIE, we were immediately interrupted. In fact, the MOVF PORTB, F did us no good whatever.
The correct code was;
MOVF PORTB, W BCF INTCON, RBIFWhat a difference! In performing the MOVF PORTB, W, the old copy of the high nibble of PORTB is updated with the current state. The flag is then cleared. Thus, interrupt will occur when the high nibble of PORTB again changes.
In the following routine, the intent was to identify the "channel" on which the change occurred. Thus, in TOP, PORTB is fetched and saved in ORIGINAL.
In the interrupt service routine, PORTB is fetched and saved in NEW. Thus, the processor now has the new value as the basis for establishing if a future change occurs. The program then ascertains the specific bit which changed, and flashes an LED at a rate depending on which bit caused the interrupt. The NEW then becomes the ORIGINAL, the RBIF is cleared and when RETFIE is executed, control passes back to the main program with interrupts enabled. It is important to note that PORTB is read, thus updating the processor's copy prior to clearing RBIF.
Note that considerable time is spent flashing the LED in the interrupt service routine. If any of the four bits on the high nibble of PORTB should change prior to clearing RBIF, RBIF will again be set by the hardware as there is a change from the latest copy. Thus, on RETFIE, interupts are again enabled and another interrupt will occur. However, this is eactly what is desired; a bit on the high nibble of PORTB changed.
I am none too certain I have been any too clear. Always read PORTB so as to update the processor's reference prior to clearing RBIF. Failure to do so may cause a false interrupt as the processor compares the current state of the high nibble of PORTB with the most recent read. That is, the same change, which is in fact no change, will cause an interrupt.
Note that in this routine, the W and STATUS registers were not saved on entry into the interrupt service routine and restored prior to exit as there was nothing of value to save. Rather, the processor simply goes to sleep and awaits the interrupt.
; WAKE_UP.ASM ; ; This program is intended to illustrate the WAKE-UP on change feature ; associated with many PICs. ; ; RB interrupts are enabled and the processor goes into a sleep mode. ; On interrupt, the specific RB interrupt which caused the interrupt ; is determined and an LED is flashed 10 times at a speed determined ; the input which changed. ; ; Copyright, Locksley Haynes, Morgan State University, Nov 22, '97 LIST p=16c84 #include <c:\mplab\p16c84.inc> __CONFIG 11H CONSTANT LED=0 ; PORTA pin for LED CONSTANT CH3=7 ; CH3 corresponds to PORTB.7 CONSTANT CH2=6 CONSTANT CH1=5 CONSTANT CH0=4 ; CH0 corresponds to PORTB.4 CONSTANT VARS=0CH LOOP1 EQU VARS+0 ; outter timing loop LOOP2 EQU VARS+1 ; inner timing loop LED_CNT EQU VARS+2 ; times LED is winked ORIGINAL EQU VARS+3 NEW EQU VARS+4 CHANGE EQU VARS+5 N EQU VARS+6 ORG 000H CLRWDT GOTO TOP ORG 004H GOTO WAKE_UP TOP: BCF OPTION_REG, 7 ; enable internal pullups BSF STATUS, RP0 MOVLW 0F0H ; RB.7 - RB.4 are inputs MOVWF TRISB BCF STATUS, RP1 BTFSS STATUS, NOT_TO ; not a watch dog timer reset GOTO TOP_1 ; sample PORTB before going to sleep MOVF PORTB, W ; fetch the current state MOVWF ORIGINAL ; current state in high nibble TOP_1: BSF INTCON, GIE ; enable general interupts BSF INTCON, RBIE ; enable interrupt on change L1: SLEEP NOP GOTO L1 WAKE_UP: ; interrupt service routine MOVF PORTB, W ; sample changed state of pins MOVWF NEW ; this will become the new original XORWF ORIGINAL, W MOVWF CHANGE ; 1's now in high nibble now identifies ; the bit that has changed CLRF N ; set index to 0 BTFSC CHANGE, CH0 GOTO BLINK INCF N, F ; N=1 BTFSC CHANGE, CH1 GOTO BLINK INCF N, F ; N=2 BTFSC CHANGE, CH2 GOTO BLINK INCF N, F GOTO BLINK BLINK: ; N is either 0, 1, 2 or 3 corresponding to the channel ; this is now mapped into a delay CALL DELAY_LOOKUP MOVWF LOOP1 ; save the delay in LOOP1 GOTO BLINK_AT_SPEED DELAY_LOOKUP: ; map N into 100, 150, 200 or 250 msecs MOVF N, W ADDWF PCL, F DT .100, .150, .200, .250 BLINK_AT_SPEED: MOVLW .10 MOVWF LED_CNT L2: BSF PORTA, LED CALL DELAY CALL DELAY BCF PORTA, LED CALL DELAY CALL DELAY DECFSZ LED_CNT, F GOTO L2 MOVF NEW, W MOVWF ORIGINAL ; new original states BCF INTCON, RBIF ; clear interrupt flag RETFIE DELAY: L3: MOVLW .110 MOVLW LOOP2 L4: CLRWDT NOP NOP NOP NOP NOP NOP DECFSZ LOOP2, F GOTO L4 DECFSZ LOOP1, F GOTO L3 RETURN END